Exercises

Čtěte nahlas a přeložte. Všímejte si stavby anglické věty a tvarů sloves.

1 She helped me.
2 We had no money.
3 Jane was here an hour ago.
4 Nobody knew about it.
5 I was single when we met.
6 I spoke with him yesterday.
7 Who told you that?
8 I thought so.
9 I saw him this morning.
10 We went dancing last night.
11 She left a few minutes ago.
12 I got no message from him.
13 Sorry, I couldn't come.
14 We had to stay there.
15 I wasn't able to find it.
16 He began to worry.
17 I found it in my pocket.
18 He broke his arm.

Všimněte si užití anglického přivlastňovacího zájmena pro vyjádření českého si (způsobit či udělat sám sobě). Např. She broke her leg. - Zlomila si nohu. (Zlomila svou nohu.), He put it in his pocket. - Dal si to do kapsy., He broke his phone. - Rozbil si telefon., She tied her hair back. - Svázala si vlasy dozadu. ap.

Doplňte správné tvary slovesa be v čase minulém prostém.

1 Where you last night?
2 I at work and they at home.
3 There no money and she angry.
4 you there too? No, I not.
5 Our parents not at home.
6 Their dog with them.
7 The children very happy.
8 My brother not there.
9 There parties every day.
10 Me and my sister afraid.

Pozor na různé výslovnosti where a were! Např.: Where were you? wεəˈwɜːjuː

Spojte odpovídající výroky.

  • 1 She knew about it.
  • 2 Where were you born?
  • 3 We spoke about you.
  • 4 I gave him some money.
  • 5 He bought a car.
  • 6 We spent two days there.
  • 7 I made a mistake.
  • 8 I wasn't at home.
  • a Mluvili jsme o tobě.
  • b Dal jsem mu nějaké peníze.
  • c Strávili jsme tam dva dny.
  • d Nebyl jsem doma.
  • e Udělal jsem chybu.
  • f Koupil si auto.
  • g Kde ses narodil?
  • h Věděla o tom.

Vyberte vhodné slovo.

1 She couldn't come. She brought / broke / bought her leg.
2 He had no money. I gave / gone / given him 20 dollars.
3 Did you walk? - No, we went / got / met by car.
4 What did he want? - He found / felt / came to speak to you.
5 Did you call him? - No, I spoke / sent / spent him a message.
6 When did he bring it? - He broke / brought / became it an hour ago.
7 Where did they get the money? - They spent / sat / sold their house.
8 Did she get the car from him? - No, she bought / thought / felt it.
9 They made / met / took on the bus and went / gave / became friends.

Pozor! Některé nepravidelné tvary anglických sloves mají i zcela jiné významy. Např. tvar saw (slovesa see) je též podstatné jméno pila, tvar thought je také myšlenka, tvar broke je i přídavné jméno znamenající na mizině, bez peněz. Např.: I'm broke. - Jsem švorc., Jsem bez peněz. Found je tvar slovesa find, ale též infinitiv pravidelného slovesa, které znamená založit (organizaci ap.). Můžete tedy v minulém čase běžně narazit na tvar founded, který však není tvarem slovesa find! Např. He founded a city. - Založil město. ALE He found a city. - Našel město.

Doplňte tvary zvýrazněných sloves v čase minulém prostém a přečtěte.

1 What did he want? - He to ask you something.
2 Did John bring those books? - No, I them.
3 Where did you go last night? - We swimming.
4 How did you get there? - I there by bus.
5 What time did they leave? - They at five.
6 When did you send it? - I it two hours ago.
7 How much money did you give her? - I her nothing.
8 What did you find? - I this.
9 Did you read it? - I it twice.
10 Who did you tell? - I nobody!
11 Did she know about it? - No, she nothing!
12 How long did it take? - It about two hours.
13 Did you buy any food? - No, I only milk.
14 What did they drink? - They beer.
15 Did Bob make this? - No, I it.
16 When did she come? - She at six p.m.
17 What time did you wake up? - I up at six o'clock.

Utvořte ze slov věty v čase minulém prostém.

1 We, go there, yesterday.
2 she, call, you?
3 the children, be, good?
4 he, buy, her flowers.
5 who, bring, the books?
6 I, think so.
7 we, have to wait.
8 It, be cold?
9 She, leave, a minute ago.
10 When, he, call?
11 I, tell him about it.
12 Who, give you this?
13 I, cannot, get up.
14 she, lose, the money.

Spojte související výroky.

  • 1 Did he help you?
  • 2 How was your day?
  • 3 How much did you give her?
  • 4 Did you sleep well?
  • 5 Were his friends there too?
  • 6 Did you call her?
  • 7 How did they know?
  • 8 How long did it take?
  • a I gave her a hundred euros.
  • b I told them about it.
  • c No, they couldn't come.
  • d No, he had no time.
  • e Not bad. And yours?
  • f No. I only slept 3 hours.
  • g It took about three days.
  • h No, I sent her a message.

Spojení not bad se běžně užívá ve významu celkem dobrý, (u)jde to ap.

Napište infinitivy sloves, která uslyšíte užitá ve větách v minulém čase.

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3
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12

Doplňte správnou časovou předložku - before nebo ago.

1 Try to be there nine o'clock.
2 We spoke about it a week at my place.
3 Bob called me two days .
4 He arrived a few minutes me.
5 We visited the city three years .
6 I saw him two days his departure.
7 I never go to bed ten.
8 We met a long time .
9 How long was it?
10 I'll be back midnight.

Převeďte věty z času budoucího do minulého. Všímejte si analogií.

1 She'll be there.
2 Bob will come alone.
3 They'll speak about us.
4 I'll send it to you.
5 You'll break it.
6 Jane will make dinner.
7 We'll go there together.
8 He'll give it to her.
9 Will they send it?
10 Will you go there?
11 When will she come?
12 I won't tell him!
13 Who will buy it?
14 I'll let him know.

Sloveso let má ve všech časech (i minulém) stále stejný tvar. Jen v čase přítomném prostém má s 3. osobou jednotného čísla tvar lets. Např.: (minulý čas) She let him sleep. - Nechala ho spát., (přítomný čas prostý) She lets him sleep. - Nechává ho spát. Nezaměňujte ale lets (pro 3. osobu) a výzvu let's (let us)! Např. Let's go!

Odpovězte na otázky celou větou podle slov v nápovědě.

1 How did you go there? by car
2 When did he leave? an hour ago
3 When did you get up? at six
4 Who did you send it to? Bob
5 What did you buy? bananas
6 Where did you meet? on the bus
7 Did anybody call? nobody
8 Did they agree? no
9 How long did it take? 1 hour
10 Did Bob lose it? no, I
11 Did he make any mistakes? many
12 Did you get my message? no
13 What did he know? nothing
14 What did you speak about? you
15 What did he tell you? nothing
16 What did you drink? beer

Drunk je 3. tvar (příčestí minulé PP) slovesa drink, ale i přídavné jméno opilý. Podobné je to i s dalšími slovesy, např. break a jeho tvarem broken (rozbitý, zlomený), give - given (daný), know - known (známý) či se slovesem go a jeho tvarem gone. Spojení be gone znamená být pryč. He's gone. - Je pryč. (Odešel.).

Utvořte otázky. Ptejte se na zvýrazněná slova.

1 We left home at seven.
2 Jane went there alone.
3 We met at John's place.
4 John bought the drinks.
5 I spent the weekend at home.
6 We spoke about her.
7 We had a good time.
8 They sent it last week.
9 We got there by car.
10 We stayed in a hotel.

Přeložte. Použijte nápovědu.

1 Nechtěl přijít. want to come
2 Rozvedli se. get divorced
3 Psal jsem jim. write to
4 Slyšel jsem o tom. hear
5 Našel to a poslal. find, send
6 Dal jsem mu vědět. let know
7 Musela odejít. have to leave
8 Vzbudil mě se v pět. wake up
9 Nemohl jsem přijít. cannot
10 Ty peníze si nechala. keep
11 Kde ses narodil? be born
12 Viděl jsem ji včera. see
13 Trvalo mu to dva dny. take

What took you so long? lze přeložit jako: Co ti trvalo tak dlouho?

Utvořte ze slov nepřímé rozkazy pomocí let a tell.

1 he, call me.
2 she, come tomorrow
3 they, sit down
4 John, stay in bed
5 she, learn it
6 he, take care of it
7 they, send it to me
8 your father, not, sleep
9 children, not, watch TV
10 she, not, lose it
11 my parents, not, leave
12 your mum, not, worry

Don't worry (about it). znamená Nedělej si (s tím) starosti. nebo Netrap se tím. Užitečný obrat: Let me worry about that. lze přeložit jako: O to se postarám já. nebo Nech to na mě. (Zařídím to.)

Utvořte z vět kladných věty záporné a naopak.

1 She went there alone.
2 They didn't bring any money.
3 I wasn't able to do that.
4 They didn't sleep together.
5 We spent the night there.
6 He kept the money.
7 I thought so.
8 We didn't go there by car.
9 I didn't try it.
10 He took English lessons.
11 They didn't have to wait.
12 I saw her yesterday.

Přečtěte nahlas a celými slovy časové údaje.

1 in the year 1898
2 in the 1980s
3 on May 13, 2011
4 phone No. 678850777
5 room No. 1068
6 in the early 1950s
7 in 1308
8 from 1917 to 2016

Napište čísla a údaje, které uslyšíte.

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2
3
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5

Přeložte výzvy pomocí slovesa let. Využijte nápovědu.

1 Pojďme pěšky. walk
2 Dáme si pauzu. have a break
3 Promluvme si. talk
4 Sedneme si tady. sit here
5 Pojďme ke mně. go, my place
6 Neztrácejme čas! waste time
7 Nehádejme se! argue
8 Nemluvme o tom. speak about
9 Nemysleme na to! think about
10 Nespěchejme! hurry

Doplňte podle kontextu chybějící údaje.

1 Jane was born in 1990. She was 20 years old in ...
2 John is an only child. He's got ... siblings.
3 Mary is Bob's grandma. Bob is Mary's ...
4 Jane is Frank's granddaughter. Frank is her ...
5 Jane is Jack's daughter and Jack is Mary's son. Jane is Mary's ...
6 Mary is Bob's grandma and Jack is Bob's grandpa. Mary and Jack are his ...
7 Kate is Frank's and Jane's mother. That means that Frank and Jane are ...
8 Frank is Mary's husband and Mary is Frank's ...
9 Bob doesn't have a wife and he has no girlfriend or boyfriend. He's ...
10 John is a little boy, but his parents died. John is now an ...
11 Mary was married, but her husband died. She is now a ...
12 John and Bob are good friends. They get ... well.

Zapamatujte si termín marital status (ˈmærɪtəl ˈsteɪtəs) - rodinný stav. Můžete se s ním často setkat při vyplňování formulářů. Typicky se do kolonky vyplní jeden z termínů: single (svobodný/svobodná), married (ženatý/vdaná), divorced (rozvedený/rozvedená), separated (žijící odděleně) či widowed (ovdovělý/ovdovělá).

Řekněte anglicky.

1 Byl jsem tam včera.
2 Byl jste tam taky?
3 Nebyli doma.
4 Kdo tam šel?
5 Šel tam sám?
6 Kdy volala?
7 Odešla před minutou.
8 Co jsi dělal včera večer?
9 Nemohl jsem ho zastihnout.
10 Udělal jsi chybu.
11 Poslala mi zprávu.
12 Dostal jsem od něho zprávu.
13 Potkal jsem ho včera.
14 Viděl jsem ji minulý týden.
15 Její přítel před rokem zemřel.
16 Zkoušel jsem to dvakrát.
17 Nechal jsem to na tvém stole.
18 Zapomněl jsem mu to říct.
19 Zapomeňme na to.
20 Nemluvme o tom!

Alone znamená sám, pokud říkáme, že někdo je bez doprovodu, osamocený ap. Např.: I live alone. - Bydlím sám., Leave me alone. znamená “Nechte mě být”. Chceme-li vyjádřit, že někdo něco dělá sám (bez cizí pomoci), je třeba užít zvratných zájmen, která v angličtině mění tvary dle osoby: I - myself, you - yourself, he - himself atd. Např. “Udělal jsem to sám.” - I did it myself., “Vyrobil to sám.” - He made it himself. ap. Více viz Zvratná zájmena v Lekci 11.

Pozor na rozdíl ve významu mezi friend a boyfriend při překladu českého přítel! Friend je obecně přítel jako kamarád. Boyfriend resp. girlfriend je přítel resp. přítelkyně jako partner či partnerka v milostném vztahu.